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Cut

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

1

...The term ‘cut’ is used to describe the process of making a master recording (usually on a disc) from which other disc or tape copies will be manufactured. The term originated in the early days of phonograph recording when, at the same time...

Spasm Band

Paul Oliver

Paul Oliver is a Fellow of Oxford Brookes University. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...Groups of children who played improvised instruments on the street, particularly in New Orleans in the 1920s and 1930s, have frequently been referred to by jazz writers as ‘spasm bands.’ The term was apparently derived from the name...

Lineup

Paul Oliver

Paul Oliver is a Fellow of Oxford Brookes University. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...The full personnel of a band or orchestra is frequently termed the ‘lineup.’ Although its first use remains uncertain, it appears to have arisen from the conjunction of two sources: the presentation of the members of a band...

Shout/Shouter

Paul Oliver

Paul Oliver is a Fellow of Oxford Brookes University. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...A shout in customary usage is a loud cry, or vocal expression, projected with considerable exhalation and strain on the vocal cords. Generally used to attract attention, it can be arresting, indignant, vehement, exultant or, indeed...

Washboard

Paul Oliver

Paul Oliver is a Fellow of Oxford Brookes University. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...Formerly used throughout the Western world for scrubbing clothes, the ‘washboard’ consists of a corrugated wood or metal platen, usually with legs that stand in a washtub. Concrete washboards molded into concrete tubs have continued...

Fade-In

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

1

...The term ‘fade-in’ is used to describe the process of gradually increasing the loudness of an audio signal from silence. In music recording, a fade-in at the beginning of a song is rarely used, partly because the technique sounds artificial...

Monitor

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

1

...The term ‘monitor’ is used most often to refer to loudspeaker systems used in live performance and in studio recording. In performance, musicians use stage monitors so that they can hear themselves; the loudspeakers, and the mix fed...

Diddley-Bow

Paul Oliver

Paul Oliver is a Fellow of Oxford Brookes University. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...An improvised one-stringed instrument, the ‘diddley-bow,’ also known as a ‘doodle-bow’ or, more frequently, a ‘jitterbug,’ was often the first instrument taken up by blues guitarists in Mississippi and adjacent states. Although variants...

Calliope

Paul Oliver

Paul Oliver is a Fellow of Oxford Brookes University. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...A calliope is a type of organ that is steam-activated rather than wind-generated by bellows. It is, in principle, a logical extension of the steam whistle that was used on North American locomotives in the nineteenth and early twentieth...

Chapbook

Paul Oliver

Paul Oliver is a Fellow of Oxford Brookes University. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume I : Media, Industry and Society

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...A precursor of the songster, the chapbook (the name is a corruption of ‘cheap book’) was a small publication, suitable for the pocket, often published and sold by ballad printers and broadside sellers. Made of twice-or thrice-folded sheets,...